Sección: Artículos
Publicado: 2013-12-17

Trading development or developing trade? The Dominican Republic trade, policies, and effects in historical perspective

  • Leticia Arroyo Abad Profesora asistente del Department of Economics and in the International Politics & Economics, Middlebury College (EEUU)

    Profesora asistente del Department of Economics and in the International Politics & Economics, Middlebury College (EEUU). Correo electrónico: larroyoabad@middlebury.edu. La autora es
    Licenciada en Economía de la Universidad Católica Argentina. Magister en estudios latinoamericanos
    de la University Of Kansas (EEUU). Doctora en economía con especialización en historia económica latinoamericana de la University of California, Davis (EEUU). Entre sus publicaciones tenemos: “Persistent Inequality? Trade, Factor Endowments, and Inequality in Republican Latin America”Journal of Economic History 73-1 (2012); y “Between Conquest and Independence: Living Standards in Spanish Latin America”, Explorations in Economic History, 49-2 (2012). Entre sus intereses se encuentran los temas de historia económica latinoamericana, los estudios
    sobre los estándares de vida, desigualdad e instituciones.

  • Amelia U. Santos-Paulino Afiliada institucionalmente a la United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (Suiza).

    Afiliada institucionalmente a la United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (Suiza).
    Correo electrónico: Amelia.Santos-Paulino@unctad.org. La autora es Licenciada en Economía de la Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra (República Dominicana) y Doctora en Economía de la University of Kent (Reino Unido). Tenemos entre sus publicaciones
    recientes: “Can Free Trade Agreements Reduce Economic Vulnerability?,” South African Journal of Economics Vol. 74, 4 (2011) y “The Dominican Republic Trade Policy Review 2008,”
    The World Economy Vol. 33,11 (2010). Sus líneas de investigación son: comercio exterior y
    desarrollo económico.

Palabras clave: (en) trade, economic development.
Palabras clave: (es) comercio exterior, desarrollo económico

La integración de la Republica Dominicana en la economía global ha fluctuado considerablemente desde la época colonial. Este artículo explora el viaje de este país en relación a los mercados internacionales mediante el análisis del sector exportador
y su impacto en la economía local y en el desarrollo económico en general. Nuestro interés radica en evaluar el rol de comercio internacional en el desarrollo de la República Dominicana utilizando una perspectiva de largo plazo.

The Dominican Republic’s partaking in the global economy has fluctuated significantly since post-colonial times. This paper follows this country’s journey in and out of the world markets since 1880s by analysing the role of the export sector within the economy and the impact on development. We are interested in whether the DR developed due to the expansion of trade or if actually trade hampered
development. We find that the integration to the world economy has been costly, as the volatility of the terms of trade and capital flows increased the country’s
vulnerability. The implemented governmental policies introduced distortions to the economy and achieved few gains in terms of economic development. Export diversification arrived relatively late to the DR, and the effects on development have been divergent, as far as improving trade balance, promoting diversification,building human capital, and creating employment.

L’intégration de la République Dominicaine dans l’économie globale a considérablement fluctué depuis l’époque coloniale. Cet article explore le parcours de ce pays en ce qui concerne son insertion dans les marchés internationaux, par le biais de
l’analyse du secteur exportateur et son impact dans l’économie locale et dans le développement économique en général. Nous tenons à évaluer le rôle du commerce international dans le développement de la République Dominicaine en utilisant une
perspective à long terme.

A integração da República Dominicana na economia global tem flutuado consideravelmente desde a época colonial. Este artigo explora a viagem deste país em relação aos mercados internacionais, analisando o setor de exportação e seu impacto sobre a economia local e no desenvolvimento econômico em geral. O nosso interesse radica em avaliar o papel do comércio internacional no desenvolvimento da República Dominicana usando uma perspectiva de longo prazo.

Referencias

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(40) Trade data

• Total flows, composition, destination, and origin

-1906: Handbook of the American Republics, 1890-1910

-1930: Informe de Receptoría de Aduanas Dominicanas, 1907-1930.

-1939: Dominican Republic Statistical Office, 21 años de estadísticas dominicanas, 1936-1956, Ciudad Trujillo: Era de Trujillo, 1957.

-2010: Oficina Nacional de Estadística

(41) Terms of trade

• Export prices:

-1906:

Tobacco: From Olmstead, Alan L., and Paul W. Rhode, “Cotton, cottonseed, shorn wool, and tobacco – acreage, production, price, and cotton stocks: 1790–1999 [Annual].” Table Da755-765 in Historical Statistics of the United States, Earliest Times to the Present: Millennial Edition, edited by Susan B. Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Sugar and Cacao: Haines, Michael R., “ Wholesale prices of selected commodi¬ties: 1784–1998.” Table Cc205-266 in Historical Statistics of the United States, Earliest Times to the Present: Millennial Edition, edited by Susan B. Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Coffee: Sauerbeck, Augustus, Prices of Commodities and the Precious Metals, Journal of the Statistical Society of London 49(3), 1886.

Sauerbeck, Augustus, Prices of Commodities During the Last Seven Years, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 56(2), 1893.

-1935: Informe de Receptoría de Aduanas Dominicanas, 1907-1930.

-1947: Dominican Republic Statistical Office, 21 años de estadísticas dominicanas, 1936-1956, Ciudad Trujillo: Era de Trujillo, 1957.

-1979: IFC

• 1980-2010: UNCTADImport prices:

Until 1940s, most of the imports were textiles, machinery, and building materials from the US. In the absence of Dominican prices, we opted for American wholesale prices as detailed below.

-1946: based on the imports composition, we used the price evolution of textiles, metals and metal products, building materials, and chemicals from Hanes, Christopher, “Wholesale price indexes, by commodity group: 1890–1951 [Bureau of Labor Statistics].” Table Cc84-95 in Historical Statistics of the United States, Earliest Times to the Present: Millennial Edition, edited by Susan B. Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, Alan L. Olmstead, Richard Sutch, and Gavin Wright. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

-1979: Martí Gutiérrez, Adolfo, Instrumental para el Estudio de la Economía Dominicana, 1945-1995, Santo Domingo: Editora Búho, 1997.

-2010: UNCTAD

(42) Based on export and import composition in 1880s-1910s.

(43) Dirección General de Estadística, Población del República

Dominicana, Ciudad Trujillo: Dirección General de Estadistica, 1947.

(44) Oficina Nacional de Estadística, Anuario estadístico de la República Dominicana, Ciudad Trujillo, Dirección General de Estadística, various years.

(45) Central Bank of the Dominican Republic

(46) Consejo Nacional de Zonas Francas, Informe Estadístico

Cómo citar
Arroyo Abad, L., & Santos-Paulino, A. U. (2013). Trading development or developing trade? The Dominican Republic trade, policies, and effects in historical perspective. Historia Caribe, 8(23), 209-239. Recuperado a partir de http://investigaciones.uniatlantico.edu.co/revistas/index.php/Historia_Caribe/article/view/982

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